image: Roland Fleming

preprint

  • An image-computable model of human visual shape similarity

    Authors:
    Morgenstern, Hartmann, Schmidt, Tiedemann, Prokott, Maiello & Fleming
    Journal:
    bioRxiv
    Summary:
    We developed a model (‘ShapeComp’), based on over 100 shape features and trained it to predict human shape similarity judgments. We found, that ShapeComp outperforms conventional metrics, and can also be used to generate perceptually uniform stimulus sets.
    Citation:
    Morgenstern, Y., Hartmann, Schmidt, F., Tiedemann, H., Prokott, E., Maiello, G., & Fleming, R. W. (preprint). An image-computable model of human visual shape similarity. bioRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.10.901876
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  • Unsupervised Learning Predicts Human Perception and Misperception of Specular Surface Reflectance

    Authors:
    Storrs & Fleming
    Journal:
    bioRxiv
    Summary:
    We suggest that brains disentangle properties by learning to model statistical structure in proximal images. To test this, we trained unsupervised generative neural networks on renderings of glossy surfaces and compared their representations with human gloss judgments.
    Citation:
    Storrs, K. R. & Fleming, R. W. (2020). Unsupervised Learning Predicts Human Perception and Misperception of Specular Surface Reflectance. bioRxiv: 2020.04.07.026120 https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.07.026120
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  • Distinguishing mirror from glass: A 'big data' approach to material perception

    Authors:
    Tamura, Prokott, Fleming
    Journal:
    arXiv
    Summary:
    Distinguishing mirror from glass is a challenging task, yet we rarely have difficulties telling them apart. We compared classification responses from human observers to predictions of different classifier models, including thousands of neural networks of different architectures as well as 'hand-engineered' classifiers. We found that relatively shallow neural networks best predict human responses.
    Citation:
    Tamura, H., Prokott, K.E. and Fleming, R.W. (2019). Distinguishing mirror from glass: A 'big data' approach to material perception. arXiv:1903.01671.
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2020

  • Color consistency in the appearance of bleached fabrics

    scene 2,3,7,8
    Authors:
    Toscani, Milojevic, Fleming & Gegenfurtner
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    Here we tested whether humans could reproduce the original colour of bleached fabrics. Observers did compensate significantly for the effects of bleaching when instructed to do so, but often relied on cognitive strategies, exploiting spatial variations across the surface.
    Citation:
    Toscani, M., Milojevic, Z., Fleming, R.W. & Gegenfurtner, K.R. (2020) Color consistency in the appearance of bleached fabrics. Journal of Vision, 20(4):11, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.4.11
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  • Visual perception of liquids: Insights from deep neural networks

    scene 2,3,7,8
    Authors:
    van Assen, Nishida & Fleming
    Journal:
    PLoS Computational Biology
    Summary:
    Here, we measured and modelled viscosity perception for identifying general principles of complex visual inferences.
    Citation:
    van Assen, J. J. R., Nishida, S., & Fleming, R. W. (2020) Visual perception of liquids: Insights from deep neural networks. PLoS Computational Biology, 16(8): e1008018. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008018
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  • Visually inferring elasticity from the motion trajectory of bouncing cubes

    Rendering of elastic bouncing cube
    Authors:
    Paulun, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    To investigate the visual perception of elasticity we systematically varied the information in motion displays of bouncing cubes. Observers were able to estimate elasticity from the rigid motion trajectory, without rotations and deformations of the object or context information from the environment.
    Citation:
    Paulun, V. C. & Fleming, R.W. (2020). Visually inferring elasticity from the motion trajectory of bouncing cubes. Journal of Vision, 0(0):06994, 1–14, https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.0.0.06994
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  • Predicting precision grip grasp locations on three-dimensional objects

    shape transformations
    Authors:
    Klein*, Maiello*, Paulun, Fleming
    Journal:
    bioRxiv
    Summary:
    In this paper we present a model, based on extensive behavioral data, which unifies the varied and fragmented literature on human grasp selection by correctly predicting human grasps across a wide variety of conditions.
    Citation:
    Klein L.K.*, Maiello G.*, Paulun V.C. and Fleming, R.W. (2020). Predicting precision grip grasp locations on three-dimensional objects.PLoS Comput Biol 16(8): e1008081. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1008081
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  • Softness and Weight from Shape: Material Properties Inferred from Local Shape Features

    icon
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Fleming, Valsecchi
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper demonstrates the effects of variations in local surface features on judgements of object softness and weight. Specifically, perception of softness and weight depends on feature type, amplitude and frequency (e.g., more and sharper spikes makes objects appear harder and heavier). Judgements are not explained by semantic associations with real-world object shapes.
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F., Fleming, R. W., & Valsecchi, M. (2020). Softness and Weight from Shape: Material Properties Inferred from Local Shape Features. Journal of Vision, 20(6):2, 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1167/jov.20.6.2
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  • The Veiled Virgin illustrates visual segmentation of shape by cause

    image: Wanita Bates, Presentation Archives
    Authors:
    Phillips, Fleming
    Journal:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Summary:
    Inspired by a famous statue depicting the Virgin Mary wearing a transparent veil, we investigated how observers visually segment 3D shapes into multiple 'causal layers'.
    Citation:
    Phillips F* & RW Fleming* (2020). The Veiled Virgin illustrates visual segmentation of shape by cause. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 201917565; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1917565117
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  • A dataset for evaluating one-shot categorization of novel object classes

    data plot
    Authors:
    Morgenstern, Schmidt, Fleming
    Journal:
    Data in Brief
    Summary:
    How do we infer novel object categories from very few samples? If you have some theoretical ideas, test them out with this dataset of human crowd-sourced responses and corresponding stimuli of novel objects embedded in 1 or 16 samples.
    Citation:
    Y. Morgenstern, Y., Schmidt, F., & Fleming, R. W. (2020). A dataset for evaluating one-shot categorization of novel object classes. Data in Brief, 105302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105302
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2019

  • Learning to See Stuff

    Natural images cluster together by texture in an unsupervised autoencoder
    Authors:
    Fleming, Storrs
    Journal:
    Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
    Summary:
    An introduction to unsupervised deep learning approaches to vision, which advocates for such 'statistical appearance models' as being more appropriate ways to think about material perception than classic 'inverse optics' frameworks.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W. and K.R. Storrs (2019). Learning to See Stuff. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2019.07.004
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  • One-shot categorization of novel object classes in humans

    data plot
    Authors:
    Morgenstern, Schmidt, Fleming
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    How do we decide whether a novel object is in some category or not? In this paper, we show that human novel object generalizations are consistent with a model that computes distances across a high-dimensional feature space, where nearer distances between a novel object and its samples tend to be interpreted as in the same class.
    Citation:
    Morgenstern, Y., Schmidt, F., & Fleming, R. W. (2019). One-shot categorization of novel object classes in humans. Vision Research, 165, 98-108.
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  • Integration of prior knowledge during haptic exploration depends on information type

    icon
    Authors:
    Zoeller, Lezkan, Paulun, Fleming, Drewing
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    In this study, we investigated the influence of different types of prior information given through different channels on behavior in softness discrimination. We found that prior information given through different channels only seems to affect exploration forces when it is implicit. Explicit prior information seems to interfere with the process and does not lead to behavior adaptation.
    Citation:
    Zoeller, A.C., Lezkan, A., Paulun V.C., Fleming, R.W. and K. Drewing (2019). Integration of prior knowledge during haptic exploration depends on information type. Journal of Vision, 19(4):20. DOI: 10.1167/19.4.20
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  • Object visibility, not energy expenditure, accounts for spatial biases in human grasp selection

    shape transformations
    Authors:
    Maiello, Paulun, Klein, Fleming
    Journal:
    i-Perception
    Summary:
    In this paper we show that when grasping an object, humans attempt to minimize the portion of the object occluded from view by the hand.
    Citation:
    Maiello G., Paulun V.C., Klein L.K. and Fleming, R.W. (2019). Object visibility, not energy expenditure, accounts for spatial biases in human grasp selection. i-Perception, 10(1). DOI: doi: 10.1177/2041669519827608
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  • Visual perception of shape-transforming processes: 'Shape Scission'

    shape transformations
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Phillips, Fleming
    Journal:
    Cognition
    Summary:
    This paper presents behavioral evidence showing that humans can scission object shapes into different causal contributions, for example, into original shape and transformation features, and access the resulting representational layers at will.
    Citation:
    Schmidt F., Phillips F. and Fleming, R.W. (2019). Visual perception of shape-transforming processes: 'Shape Scission'. Cognition,189, 167-180. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2019.04.006
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  • Getting "fumpered": Classifying objects by what has been done to them

    icon
    Authors:
    Fleming, Schmidt
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    Generative processes endow objects with distinctive statistical features. This paper shows that observers can identify those features and use them to classify objects according to what has been done to them. The features are distinct from Euclidean shape similarity and observers can separate and voluntarily respond to both aspects of objects.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W. and Schmidt F. (2019). Getting "fumpered": Classifying objects by what has been done to them. Journal of Vision,19(4):15, 1–12. DOI: 10.1167/19.4.15
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  • The Material-Weight Illusion disappears or inverts in objects made of two materials

    Image of bipartite object (half Styrofoam, half wood) with force transducers attached
    Authors:
    Paulun, Buckingham, Goodale, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Neurophysiology
    Summary:
    We report a novel weight illusion that contradicts all current explanations of the material-weight illusion: When lifting an object composed of two materials, the heavier-looking side feels heavier, even when the true weight distribution is uniform. The opposite (classic) illusion is found when the same materials are lifted in two separate objects.
    Citation:
    Paulun VC, Buckingham G, Goodale MA and Fleming, R.W. (2019). The Material-Weight Illusion disappears or inverts in objects made of two materials. Journal of Neurophysiology,121: 996–1010. DOI: 10.1152/jn.00199.2018
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2018

  • Identifying shape transformations from photographs of real objects

    shape transformations
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Fleming
    Journal:
    PLoS ONE
    Summary:
    This paper presents evidence that humans can identify an causal history (folded, bent, crumpled, twisted) from photographs of real objects, with accuracy being modulated by the type of transformation and object material.
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F. and Fleming, R.W. (2018). Identifying shape transformations from photographs of real objects. PLoS ONE,13(8): e0202115. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202115
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  • The Sequential-Weight Illusion

    9 different Objects
    Authors:
    Maiello, Paulun, Klein, Fleming
    Journal:
    i-Perception
    Summary:
    In this light-hearted report we demonstrate a curious phenomenon in which the felt weight of an object can change in front our eyes.
    Citation:
    Maiello, G., Paulun, V.C., Klein, L.K. and Fleming, R.W. (2018). The Sequential-Weight Illusion. i-Perception,9(4), 1–6. DOI: 10.1177/2041669518790275
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  • Colour, contours, shading and shape: flow interactions reveal anchor neighbourhoods

    9 different Objects
    Authors:
    Kunsberg, Holtmann-Rice, Alexander, Cholewiak, Fleming, Zucker
    Journal:
    Interface Focus
    Summary:
    This paper describes some useful shape from shading cues that emerge in luminance and colour flow fields. It shows that not all parts of an image are perceptually equal: shape percepts are constructed from key anchor regions.
    Citation:
    Kunsberg, B., Holtmann-Rice, D., Alexander, E., Cholewiak, S., Fleming, R.W., Zucker, S.W. (2018). Colour, contours, shading and shape: flow interactions reveal anchor neighbourhoods. Interface Focus, 8: 20180019 DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2018.0019
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  • Visual Features in the Perception of Liquids

    9 different Objects
    Authors:
    Van Assen, Barla, Fleming
    Journal:
    Current Biology
    Summary:
    Here, using state-of-the-art fluid simulations, we investigate the cues underlying the perception of liquid viscosity. We suggest that midlevel visual features describing a liquids shape and motion play a key role in viscosity perception
    Citation:
    Van Assen, J.J., Barla, P. and R.W. Fleming (2018). Visual Features in the Perception of Liquids. Current Biology, 28(3), 452–458 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2017.12.037
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2017

  • Perceiving animacy from shape

    9 different Objects
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Hegele, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper shows that human superordinate visual classification of ambiguous images as animals, plants, or minerals can be explained by particular combinations of mid-level shape features (e.g., symmetrical, curved).
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F., Hegele, M. and R.W. Fleming (2017). Perceiving animacy from shape. Journal of Vision, 17(11):10 DOI: 10.1167/17.11.10
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  • Material Perception

    materials
    Authors:
    Fleming
    Journal:
    Annual Reviews of Vision Science
    Summary:
    This paper reviews recent work on material perception and scrutinizes some basic assumptions of mid-level vision to propose an alternative approach to how material properties might be estimated and represented.
    Citation:
    R.W. Fleming (2017). Material Perception. Annual Reviews of Vision Science, 3(1). 365-388. DOI: 10.1146/annurev-vision-102016-061429.
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  • The perception of hazy gloss

    partially polished nickel
    Authors:
    Vangorp, Barla, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper investigates the subjective surface appearance of materials that have multi-component specular lobes, leading a distinctive 'hazy' gloss. We suggest the visual system may decompose specular reflections into multiple 'layers'.
    Citation:
    Vangorp, P., Barla, P. R.W. Fleming (2017). The perception of hazy gloss. Journal of Vision, 17(5):19. DOI: 10.1167/17.5.19
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  • Inferring the stiffness of unfamiliar objects from optical, shape, and motion cues

    Unfamiliar Objects
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Paulun, van Assen, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper investigates the estimation of object softness using static and dynamic renderings of deforming unfamiliar objects. For static stimuli, optical material cues dominate while for dynamic stimuli, deformation cues dominate, suggesting that we integrate shape, motion and optical cues to infer stiffness.
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F., Paulun, V.C., van Assen J.J.R. R.W. Fleming (2017). Inferring the stiffness of unfamiliar objects from optical, shape, and motion cues. Journal of Vision, 17(3):18. DOI: 10.1167/17.3.18
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  • Shape, motion and optical cues to stiffness of elastic objects

    Rendering of indented soft object
    Authors:
    Paulun, Schmidt, van Assen, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    We show that humans can estimate the softness of an object in two ways: (1) Through the association of a known material (e.g. metal) and its internal properties (e.g. hard) or (2) through the estimation of the observed deformation of an object in a dynamic scene (larger deformation signals softer material).
    Citation:
    Paulun, V.C., Schmidt, F., Van Assen, J.J. and R.W. Fleming (2017). Shape, motion and optical cues to stiffness of elastic objects. Journal of Vision, 17(1):20, 1-22. DOI: 10.1167/17.1.20
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2016

  • Influence of optical material properties on the perception of liquids

    Stimuli
    Authors:
    Van Assen, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    Here we study whether colour and surface reflectance impacts the perception of liquids and their properties. We show that viscosity perception is almost perfectly constant across optical properties. However, liquid identity, and other characteristics, can be strongly influenced by their surface appearance.
    Citation:
    Van Assen, J.J. and R.W. Fleming (2016). Influence of optical material properties on the perception of liquids. Journal of Vision, 16(15):12, 1-20. DOI: 10.1167/16.15.12
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  • Visual perception of shape altered by inferred causal history

    altered Shapes
    Authors:
    Spröte, Schmidt, Fleming
    Journal:
    Scientific Reports
    Summary:
    This paper shows how object perception is affected by the perceived causal origin of object features. Specfically, when concavities appear as bitten out, participants judge object symmetry and structure (front-back) as if bitten regions were suppressed.
    Citation:
    Sproete, P., Schmidt, F and R.W. Fleming (2016). Visual perception of shape altered by inferred causal history. Scientific Reports, 6:36245. DOI: 10.1038/srep36245.
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  • Visual perception of complex shape-transforming processes

    Bug
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Fleming
    Journal:
    Cognitive Psychology
    Summary:
    This paper investigates how humans build correspondences across non-rigid shape-transforming processes like growth, using the dot matching task. Responses were strikingly accurate and well explained by a model that suggests we infer spatial correspondences relative to key landmarks of shape.
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F and R.W. Fleming (2016). Visual perception of complex shape-transforming processes. Cognitive Psychology, 90: 48-70.
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  • Flow-Guided Warping for Image-Based Shape Manipulation

    lion
    Authors:
    Vergne, Barla, Bonneau, Fleming
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Graphics
    Summary:
    We present an interactive method that manipulates perceived object shape using a spatial warping technique to exaggerate orientation patterns in the image that are strongly correlated to surface curvature. Our algorithm produces convincing shape manipulation results on synthetic imagesand photographs, for various materials and lighting environments.
    Citation:
    Vergne, R., Barla P., Bonneau, G.-P. and R. W. Fleming (2016). Flow-Guided Warping for Image-Based Shape Manipulation. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 2016), 35(4): 93. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2897824.2925937.
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  • Differential processing of binocular and monocular gloss cues in human visual cortex

    Reflecting Blob
    Authors:
    Sun, Di Luca, Ban, Muryy, Fleming, Welchman
    Journal:
    Journal of Neurophysiology
    Summary:
    In this paper we used fMRI to identify brain areas involved in the processing of binocular cues to gloss. Ventral area LO responding to both object shape and surface material properties. We also found transfer effects from monocular to binocular cues in V3B/KO, suggesting a shared representation of the two cues in this area.
    Citation:
    Sun, H-C, Di Luca, M, Ban, H, Muryy, A, Fleming RW and AE Welchman (2016). Differential processing of binocular and monocular gloss cues in human visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 115(6):2779-90. doi: 10.1152/jn.00829.2015.
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  • 'Proto-rivalry': how the binocular brain identifies gloss

    Reflecting Blob
    Authors:
    Muryy, Fleming, Welchman
    Journal:
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London
    Summary:
    Here, we show that the brain exploits some surprisingly simple binocular fusion signals to identify glossy surfaces. We show that the widely held concept of 'binocular luster' is wrong. Instead it is the partial fusion that occurs when binocular matches stray from epipolar geometry that drives binocular gloss perception.
    Citation:
    Muryy, A.A., R.W. Fleming and A.E. Welchman (2016). 'Proto-rivalry': how the binocular brain identifies gloss. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B), 283: 20160383. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2016.0383
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  • Effects of material properties and object orientation on precision grip kinematics

    rods of differing materials
    Authors:
    Paulun, Gegenfurtner, Goodale, Fleming
    Journal:
    Experimental Brain Research
    Summary:
    We report the effects of different materials (Styrofoam, wood, brass, and Vaseline covered brass) and object orientation on precision grip kinematics. Conditions that make grasping more difficult (e.g. high weight and low surface friction) lead to longer durations of individual movement segments and a more careful placement of the fingers on the object.
    Citation:
    Paulun, V.C., Gegenfurtner, K.R., Goodale, M.A. and R.W. Fleming (2016). Effects of material properties and object orientation on precision grip kinematics. Experimental Brain Research, doi: 10.1007/s00221-016-4631-7
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  • MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception

    bird
    Authors:
    Zhang, de Ridder, Fleming, Pont
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    MatMix 1.0 is a novel material probe we developed for quantitatively measuring visual perception of materials, which leads to robust reports of surface reflectance qualities across individuals, combinations of materials and lighting conditions.
    Citation:
    Zhang, F., de Ridder, H., R.W. Fleming and S. Pont (2016). MatMix 1.0: Using optical mixing to probe visual material perception. Journal of Vision, 16(6):11, 1-18 doi:10.1167/16.6.11.
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  • Perception of light source distance from shading patterns

    ball with grainy surface
    Authors:
    Schütt, Baier, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    Here we show that participants can judge the distance of nearby light-sources from the distinctive patterns of shading on rough objects.
    Citation:
    Schütt, H.H., Baier, F. and R.W. Fleming (2016). Perception of light source distance from shading patterns. Journal of Vision, 16(3):9. doi: 10.1167/16.3.9.
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  • Bent out of shape: The visual inference of non-rigid shape transformations applied to objects

    shape transformation
    Authors:
    Spröte, Fleming
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    We studied whether observers can tell when shapes have been ‘bent’ by non-rigid transformations. Subjects could reproduce a ‘bend’ applied to one object on a different object. They also showed a certain degree of invariance to bends when identifying shapes. This suggests the brain separates shape features into distinct causal contributions.
    Citation:
    Sproete, P., & Fleming, R. W. (2016). Bent out of shape: The visual inference of non-rigid shape transformations applied to objects. Vision research, 126, 330-346.
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  • Perception of shape and space across rigid transformations

    base shape
    Authors:
    Schmidt, Spröte, Fleming
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    "This paper measures shape and space representations across rigid transformations, using the dot matching task. Shape representations on contours and the surrounding space are remarkably robust against rotation and scaling, with performance being modulated by the magnitude of transformation and contour saliency. "
    Citation:
    Schmidt, F., Spröte, P. and R.W. Fleming (2015). Perception of shape and space across rigid transformations Vision Research, doi:10.1016/j.visres.2015.04.011
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2015

  • Visual Development: Learning Not to See

    metal tee pot
    Authors:
    Fleming
    Journal:
    Current Biology
    Summary:
    A recent study shows that young infants are sensitive to image differences that older children and adults cannot detect. Learning not to notice such image differences is crucial for developing a visual system that recognizes materials correctly.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W. (2015). Visual Development: Learning Not to See. Current Biology, 25(24): R1166-R1168.

  • Seeing liquids from static snapshots

    a green liquid
    Authors:
    Paulun, Kawabe, Nishida, Fleming
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    In this paper, we show that humans can judge the viscosity of flowing liquids from static snapshots. To estimate viscosity, observers can use simple shape cues related to how highly viscous fluids pile up into curvier mounds and bumps, whereas low viscous fluids tend to settle and spread out on the ground more quickly.
    Citation:
    Paulun, V.C., Kawabe, T., Nishida, S. and R.W. Fleming (2015). Seeing liquids from static snapshots. Vision Research, Vol 115, Part B: 163-174.

  • Seeing liquids from visual motion

    liquid motion vectors
    Authors:
    Kawabe, Maruya, Fleming, Nishida
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    This paper shows that human observers can recognize liquids and their viscosity from pure visual motion signals. The visual system exploits various motion statistics to perceive liquids. Local motion speed is a critical image feature for liquid viscosity. Spatial smoothness of optical flow is a critical image feature for seeing moving patterns as liquids.
    Citation:
    Kawabe, T., Maruya, K., Fleming, R.W. and S. Nishida (2015). Seeing liquids from visual motion. Vision Research, Vol 109, Part B: 125-138.

  • Perception of physical stability and center of mass of 3-D objects

    a cup toppeling over
    Authors:
    Cholewiak, Fleming, Singh
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper investigates the visual estimation of physical stability of 3-D objects and how it relates to the perceived center of mass (COM). Results revealed inconsistencies between observers' critical-angle and COM settings. This suggests that observers did not use their COM estimates in a physically correct manner when making visual judgments of physical stability.
    Citation:
    Cholewiak, S.A., Fleming, R.W. and M. Singh (2015). Perception of physical stability and center of mass of 3-D objects. Journal of Vision, 15(2): 13; doi:10.1167/15.2.13

2014

  • Key characteristics of specular stereo

    stereo construction graphic
    Authors:
    Muryy, Fleming, Welchman
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper characterizes the key respects in which specular stereo differs from standard stereo. We suggest the brain bases depth estimates on the epipolar components of disparities and treats the ortho-epipolar components as a measure of the reliability of the disparity signals.
    Citation:
    Muryy, A., R.W. Fleming and A.E. Welchman (2014). Key characteristics of specular stereo. Journal of Vision, 14(14): 14; doi:10.1167/14.14.14

  • Visual Perception of Materials and their Properties

    Mirror reflections
    Authors:
    Fleming
    Journal:
    Vision Research
    Summary:
    Here we review the perception of materials and propose that the visual system uses generative statisical models of material appearance to represent and distinguish between different materials.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W. (2014). Visual Perception of Materials and their Properties. Vision Research, 94, 62-75

2013

  • Concavities, Negative Parts and the Perception that Shapes are "Complete"

    Apple
    Authors:
    Spröte, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    We studied the geometrical conditions under which subjects perceived objects as been 'bitten', as opposed to complete shapes. We found that the impression that an object is bitten is strongly correlated with the relative depth of the negative part.
    Citation:
    Spröte, P. and R.W. Fleming (2013). Concavities, Negative Parts and the Perception that Shapes are "Complete". Journal of Vision, 13(14):3, 1-23; doi:10.1167/13.14.3

  • Effects of surface reflectance and 3D shape on perceived rotation axis

    a tee pot rotating
    Authors:
    Doerschner, Yilmaz, Kucukoglu, Fleming
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    Here we show that the distinctive optical flow created by specular surfaces affects the perceived rotation axis of objects, leading to some striking illusions of object motion.
    Citation:
    Doerschner, K., Yilmaz, O., Kucukoglu, G and R.W. Fleming (2013). Effects of surface reflectance and 3D shape on perceived rotation axis. Journal of Vision, 13(11): 8; doi:10.1167/13.11.8

  • Perceptual qualities and material classes

    a yellow cloth
    Authors:
    Fleming, Wiebel, Gegenfurtner
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    We conducted two experiments to investigate the interactions between material classification and judgments of material qualities in both the visual and semantic domains. Our findings show that perceptual qualities are well conserved across domains, and systematically related to material class membership.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W., Wiebel, C. and K. Gegenfurtner (2013). Perceptual qualities and material classes. Journal of Vision, 13(8): 9; doi:10.1167/13.8.9

  • Perception of the physical stability of asymmetrical three-dimensional objects

    an object falling?
    Authors:
    Cholewiak, Fleming, Singh
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    We studied the perception of object stability, finding that observers can perceptually track the varying critical angle in different directions quite well; and that their overall estimates of object stability are strongly biased toward the minimum critical angle (i.e., the critical angle in the least stable direction).
    Citation:
    Cholewiak, S.A., Fleming, R.W. and M. Singh (2013). Perception of the physical stability of asymmetrical three-dimensional objects. Journal of Vision, 13(4): 12; doi:10.1167/13.4.12

  • Specular reflections and the estimation of shape from binocular disparity

    reflecting sphere
    Authors:
    Muryy, Welchman, Blake, Fleming
    Journal:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Summary:
    We studied binocular 3D shape perception for ideal mirrored surfaces, finding that far from 'knowing the physics' of specular reflection, they make substantial errors. The responses are consistent with a process that identifies reliable local disparity signals and interpolates between them.
    Citation:
    Muryy, A., Welchman, A.E., Blake, A. and R.W. Fleming (2013). Specular reflections and the estimation of shape from binocular disparity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(6): 2413-2418.

2012

  • Human Perception: Visual Heuristics in the Perception of Glossiness

    contrast on an apple
    Authors:
    Fleming
    Journal:
    Current Biology
    Summary:
    New insights into the perception of surface glossiness embody a conceptual change in perception research. Instead of estimating the physical properties of objects, the brain exploits ‘invariants’ — even though these sometimes make us get the answer wrong.
    Citation:
    Fleming R.W. (2012). Human Perception: Visual Heuristics in the Perception of Glossiness. Current Biology, 22(20):R865-R866.

  • Haptic Categorical Perception of Shape

    blobs
    Authors:
    Gaißert, Waterkamp, Fleming, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    PLoS ONE
    Summary:
    Here we show for the first time that categorical perception also occurs in haptic shape perception. 
    Citation:
    Gaißert N., Waterkamp S., Fleming R.W. and I. Bülthoff (2012). Haptic Categorical Perception of Shape. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43062. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043062.

  • Surface Flows for Image-Based Shading Design

    an old car
    Authors:
    Vergne, Barla, Fleming, Granier
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Graphics
    Summary:
    We present a novel method for producing convincing pictures of shaded objects based entirely on 2D image operations.We identify the two types of surface flows involved in the depiction of shaded objects, which are consistent with recent perceptual studies. We then introduce two novel deformation operators that closely mimic surface flows while providing direct artistic controls in real-time.
    Citation:
    Vergne, R., Barla, P., Fleming, R.W., X. Granier, (2012). Surface Flows for Image-Based Shading Design. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH). 31(4), Article 94. doi:10.1145/2185520.2185590.

2011

  • Estimation of 3D shape from image orientations

    shape from smear
    Authors:
    Fleming, Holtmann-Rice, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Summary:
    Here we show that the perception of 3D shape from surface texture patterns is based primarily on specific 2D orientation signals. Perceptually adapting orientation detectors causes unoriented random noise to look like specific 3D shapes, leading to striking illusions.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R. W., Holtmann-Rice, D. and H. H. Bülthoff (2011). Estimation of 3D shape from image orientations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(51) 20438-20443.

  • Visual Motion and the Perception of Surface Material

    painting reflections
    Authors:
    Doerschner, Fleming, Yilmaz, Schrater, Hartung, Kersten
    Journal:
    Current Biology
    Summary:
    In this paper we show the central role that optical flow plays in the perception of surface glossiness. We show that sticking reflections onto a surface makes it look matte, and identify specific optic flow characteristics that can predict surface material illusions.
    Citation:
    Doerschner, K. Fleming, R.W., Yilmaz, O., Schrater, P.R., Hartung, B. and Kersten, D. (2011). Visual Motion and the Perception of Surface Material. Current Biology, 21(23): 1-7.

  • Perceived Object Stability Depends on Multisensory Estimates of Gravity

    vases falling
    Authors:
    Barnett-Cowan, Fleming, Singh, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    PLoS ONE
    Summary:
    Here we study the effects of vestibular cues to gravity on the perception of object stability. We show that objects appear more stable than they are when the head is tilted in the same direction in which they fall.
    Citation:
    Barnett-Cowan M., Fleming R.W., Singh M. and HH. Bülthoff (2011). Perceived Object Stability Depends on Multisensory Estimates of Gravity. PLoS ONE 6(4): 1-5.

  • Visual Perception: Bizarre Contours Go Against the Odds

    weird contours
    Authors:
    Fleming
    Journal:
    Current Biology
    Summary:
    A new study shows that the brain sometimes invents visual contours even when they would be highly unlikely to occur in the real world. This presents a challenge to theories assuming that the brain prefers the most probable interpretation of the retinal image.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W. (2011). Visual Perception: Bizarre Contours Go Against the Odds. Current Biology, 21(7): R259-R261.

  • Visual Perception of Thick Transparent Materials

    a transparent blob
    Authors:
    Fleming, Jäkel, Maloney
    Journal:
    Psychological Science
    Summary:
    This was the first study of the perception of solid transparent materials. We showed that the perceived refractive index of glass-like materials is based on the way the object distorts patterns visible through it.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R.W., Jäkel, F. and L. T. Maloney (2011). Visual Perception of Thick Transparent Materials. Psychological Science, 22(6): 812-820.

2009

  • Categorizing art: Comparing humans and computers

    Familiarity Ratings
    Authors:
    Wallraven, Fleming, Cunningham, Rigau, Feixas, Sbert
    Journal:
    Computers and Graphics
    Summary:
    When observers are asked to classify artworks according to different styles, their classifications are suprisingly well explained by some simple, low-level appearance cues.
    Citation:
    Wallraven, C., Fleming, R. W., Cunningham, D. W., Rigau, J., Feixas, M. and M. Sbert (2009). Categorizing art: Comparing humans and computers. Computers and Graphics, 33(4), 484-495.

  • Evaluation of reverse tone mapping through varying exposure conditions

    High dynamic range scene
    Authors:
    Masia, Agustin, Fleming, Sorkine, Gutierrez
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Graphics
    Summary:
    Using perceptual studies, we show that reverse tone mapping of LDR imges to HDR should be handled with simple, non-aggressive methods to achieve the desired effect.
    Citation:
    Masia, B., Agustin, S., Fleming, R. W., Sorkine, O. and D. Gutierrez (2009). Evaluation of reverse tone mapping through varying exposure conditions. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH Asia) 28(5:160), 1-8.

2007

  • Do HDR displays support LDR content?: a psychophysical evaluation

    street lamp
    Authors:
    Akyüz, Fleming, Riecke, Reinhard, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Graphics
    Summary:
    In this study, we found that simply boosting the range of an LDR image linearly to fit the HDR display can equal or even surpass the appearance of a true HDR image. Thus the potentially tricky process of inverse tone mapping can be largely circumvented.
    Citation:
    Akyüz, A. O., Fleming, R. W., Riecke, B. E., Reinhard, E. and H. H. Bülthoff (2007). Do HDR displays support LDR content?: a psychophysical evaluation. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 07) 26(3:38), 1-7.

2006

  • Sketching Shiny Surfaces: 3D Shape Extraction and Depiction of Specular Surfaces

    specular object
    Authors:
    Weidenbacher, Bayerl, Neumann, Fleming
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Applied Perception
    Summary:
    In this paper we propose a biologically motivated recurrent model for the extraction of visual features relevant for the perception of 3D shape information from images of mirrored objects.
    Citation:
    Weidenbacher, U., Bayerl, P., Neumann, H. and R. W. Fleming (2006). Sketching Shiny Surfaces: 3D Shape Extraction and Depiction of Specular Surfaces. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 3(3), 262-285.

  • Image-Based Material Editing

    transparent and nickel vase
    Authors:
    Kahn, Reinhard, Fleming, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Graphics
    Summary:
    Here we present a method for automatically replacing one material with another, completely different material, starting with only a single high dynamic range image as input. Our approach exploits the fact that human vision is surprisingly tolerant of certain (sometimes enormous) physical inaccuracies, while being sensitive to others. 
    Citation:
    Kahn, E. A., Reinhard, E., Fleming, R. W. and Bülthoff, H. H. (2006). Image-Based Material Editing. ACM Transactions on Graphics (Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 06), 25(3), 654-663.

2005

  • Low-level image cues in the perception of translucent materials

    test images
    Authors:
    Fleming, Bülthoff
    Journal:
    ACM Transactions on Applied Perception
    Summary:
    This was one of the first papers on the perception of translucent materials. We show the importance of lighting direction in translucency perception, and also discuss the role of many cues including highlights, color, object size, contrast and blur.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R. W. and Bülthoff, H. H. (2005). Low-level image cues in the perception of translucent materials. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, 2(3), 346-382.

2004

  • Specular reflections and the perception of shape

    an amorphus reflecting blob
    Authors:
    Fleming, Torralba, Adelson
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This paper showed that observers are surprisingly good at perceiving the shape of ideal mirror objects, and suggests that distinctive orientation patterns are a key cue.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R. W., Torralba, A. and Adelson, E. H. (2004). Specular reflections and the perception of shape. Journal of Vision, 4(9), 798-820.

2003

  • Real world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties

    reflection attributes
    Authors:
    Fleming, Dror, Adelson
    Journal:
    Journal of Vision
    Summary:
    This was the first paper to study how natural and unnatural lighting affect the perception of surface gloss. We show modifying illumination statistics alters apparent reflectance properties.
    Citation:
    Fleming, R. W., Dror, R. O. and E. H. Adelson (2003). Real world illumination and the perception of surface reflectance properties. Journal of Vision, 3(5), 347-368.

2002

  • The Interpolation of Object and Surface Structure

    modal completion
    Authors:
    Anderson, Singh, Fleming
    Journal:
    Cognitive Psychology
    Summary:
    In this paper, we show that modal completion processes vary a lot with luminance relationships within scene, whereas amodal completion processes do not. We also demonstrate that the shape of interpolated contours can change when a figure undergoes a transition from a modal to an amodal appearance. These findings suggest that modal and amodal completion do not result from a common interpolation mechanism, as claimed by the identity hypothesis.
    Citation:
    Anderson, B. L., Singh, M and R. W. Fleming (2002). The Interpolation of Object and Surface Structure. Cognitive Psychology, 44, 148-190.